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Bollywood After 9/11 – The Depiction of Islam and the West in Indian Cinema

Posted on February 5, 2019 in Uncategorized

Since the dramatic events of 9/11, Bollywood cinema has shown an unusual interest in the terrorist film genre, especially as regards to international terrorism and global tensions between Islam and the West. Striking examples of this genre include Kabir Khan’s New York (2008), Karan Johar’s My Name is Khan (2010), Rensil D’Silva’s Kurbaan (2009) and Apoorva Lakhia’s Mission Istanbul, to name a few. Films like Anil Sharma’s Ab Tumhare Hawale Watam Sathiyo (2004) and Subhash Ghai’s Black and White (2008) focus on terrorist issues within the Indian subcontinent itself. The latter films have continued in the tradition of pre 9/11 terrorist films like Vidhu Vinod Chopra’s Mission Kashmir (2000), Mani Ratnam’s Dil Se (1998) and Bombay (1995). Ratnam’s Bombay dealt with the devastating Hindu and Moslem riots in 1991, which cost over a 1000 lives. Chopra’s Mission Kashmir dealt with a scenario of local terrorist activity in the Kashmir region sponsored by international terrorist cells working from Afghanistan. In this way the terrorist genre is not an entirely new genre in Bollywood, nor is terrorism an unfamiliar phenomenon in the day to day activities of the Indian subcontinent (the most recent and brutal terrorist attack was the Mumbai massacre in 2008). What makes the recent spate of terrorist films interesting is that they have entered the global sphere and have become part and parcel of a transnational dialogue between East and West and Islam and the other.

To make the terrorist genre more palatable, Bollywood has traditionally spiced up the violence and suspense with the hallmark Bollywood song and dance interludes and sentimental romantic exchanges between the hero and heroine. Mission Kashmir is notorious for its graceful dances and stirring emotional exchanges between the main protagonists, played out on the violent backdrop of terrorism in Kashmir. Mani Ratnam’s Bombay likewise mixes up the most brutal scenes of Hindu and Moslem hatred and violence with delicious comedy and a forbidden love affair between a pious Moslem girl and a boy from a highly placed Shaivite Hindu family. His father is the trustee of the village temple and both the family patriarchs are violently opposed to the children marrying outside their caste and religious community.

Karan Johar’s My Name is Khan

Following in the Bollywood tradition of mixing genres (known in the industry as the masala or spicy recipe film), Karan Johar’s My Name is Khan blends comedy and romance with the political hot potato of post 9/11 bigotry and racial hatred in the US. The film’s theme of ultra-nationalist extremism culminates in the senseless killing of a young Indian boy Sam or Sameer, who is beaten to death by youths in the football ground, in part due to the adopting of his stepfather’s name Khan. Overflowing gushes of emotion and heart stirring romantic songs, such as the mixing of the 1960’s counter culture anthem “We Shall Overcome” (sung in both Hindi and English), occur throughout the film to both lighten the tension and to exemplify the presence of light and hope in a world darkened by the bitter shadow of global terrorism. The fact that the central protagonist Rizvan Khan is a pious Moslem, and politically neutral to the hysteria of the debate, is significant. Brought up by his mother that there are no fixed labels such as Hindu and Moslem, but only good and bad people, Rizvan Khan freely practises his religion with equal love and respect for all other races and creeds, only differentiating between what is in the hearts and minds of people, not to what religion they profess, or to what race, culture and nationality they belong.

My Name is Khan is also significant for Bollywood fans in that it reunites the biggest heart throb couple of Hindi cinema from previous decades, Kajol and Shah Rukh Khan. The duo was previously paired in two of Karan Johar’s earlier blockbusters Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1995) and Kabhi Kushi Kabhie Gham (2001). Both of these films were sentimental gushy romances, literally overflowing with juicy outpourings of emotion and feeling; a phenomenon which is termed rasa in India. The song and dance sequences were also very elaborately staged and combined a balance of the traditional Indian music and dance forms (Hindustani music and traditional folk dances) as well as modern Western forms. This ensured the films’ immense popularity in both India and diaspora countries like Canada, the US and the UK.

Karan Johar continues to utilise the Bollywood masala formula in My Name is Khan, exploiting a sentimental and occasionally drawn out love affair between the autistic hero Rizvan Khan and his eventual Hindu wife Mandira, a proprietor of a successful hair dressing salon in San Francisco (the “city of love” which symbolizes the 1960s counter culture movement exploited by Johar in the “We Shall Overcome” sequence). In the preliminary scenes of the film, America is portrayed as the land of freedom and opportunity, the nation where all races and religions are given the possibility to move forward and achieve prosperity and happiness in a way that is seen to be almost impossible in a country like traditional India, buffeted as it is with caste and religious prejudices and between half and two thirds of its population living in poverty.

For foreign nationals or NRI’s (non-resident Indians), however, 9/11 radically changes this formula and shatters the American dream nurtured for decades by an Indian diaspora which has merged its Indian cultural roots with American ideals of individual freedom and consumer prosperity. According to Johar’s film, this is now the plight of the Khans who, instead of continuing to act as fully integrated members of the mainstream community, now suddenly find themselves on the periphery of a post-9/11″us and them” rhetoric, fuelled by an ultra-nationalist Republican President, who perceives the world in black and white realities, which have little to do with the everyday lives of the average individual. It is no coincidence that it is the newly elected President Barack Obama (played by his look alike Christopher B. Duncan) who greets Rizvan Khan at the end of the movie and applauds him for his faith in God and his humanity and perseverance. For Karan Johar, Obama’s election is symbolic of the “us and them” divisions in the US psyche being brought to a close along with the restoration of the innate ideals for which the American Republic and its people stand.

Before the nation’s divisions are healed, however, the Khan’s experience extreme personal hardships due to their ethnicity. These hardships culminate in the tragic death of their teenage son Sameer, beaten to death in the school playing field by racist youths. In her grief, Sameer’s mother Mandira blames her husband Rizvan, accusing him of the fact that if she and her son had not taken the name of Khan, he would not be dead. She then tells him that the only way he can atone for this stigma of being a Khan and, by implication a Moslem, is to meet the US President (at the time it is George W. Bush) and to tell him that: “My Name is Khan and I am not a Terrorist.” This simple phrase becomes a kind of mantra throughout the film, powerfully confronting the viewer’s post-9/11 prejudices by refusing to link the two concepts of Islam and terrorism together: i.e. my name is Khan, therefore I am a Moslem, but at the same time just because I am a Moslem, does this mean that I am a terrorist? Unhappily, during the hysteria that followed in the wake of 9/11 for many Westerners the two terms, Moslem and terrorist became pretty much synonymous.

This is a film therefore which, unlike its predecessors, is not only aimed at instructing Indians and West Asians (it broke all records in Pakistan), but is also aimed at educating and enlightening Westerners. This it does in a very subtle and didactic way, not only through its exploitation of familiar West Asian icons, but also through its exploration of themes and images universal to the US and the West: the 1960s counter culture, the plight of the coloured people in the South and references to the civil rights movement via the film’s theme song “We Shall Overcome.” This famous anti-establishment song from 1960s when sung in Hindi by a devout Moslem in a black gospel church gives the audience an almost surreal feeling of both merging and, at the same time transcending, national, racial and socio-religious cultural borders: a path to world brotherhood and unity which has been courageously expounded by two of the twentieth century’s great spiritual leaders, India’s Mahatma Gandhi and America’s Martin Luther King.

Karan Johar thus draws upon both the Western ideals of liberty and individualism, as well as propounding the roots of West Asian religious piety and communal solidarity. By doing this My Name is Khan proposes an alternate model of global brotherhood and transnational identities and exchanges. This new global model for Johar is one which draws its inspiration and ideals from the grass roots level- from the poor coloureds of Georgia, from the socially ostracised Moslems, and from the autistic and mentally handicapped. All of them are an integral part of this global humanity and in the end the figure of Shah Rukh Khan, the biggest megastar in the global forum today (including Hollywood), speaks for all of them, when he says my name is Khan and I am not a terrorist, not an outcaste and not a threat to the US or the essential values which it seeks to export to the rest of the world. Rather, as pious Moslems, those like Rizvan Khan have something of value to contribute to the US and the West, and when those in power allow them to do so, the essential values which have made the US great can not only be maintained but increased and broadened. On the other hand, ultranationalist extremist practises will only create more and more hatred and division, so that even those who have assimilated the American Dream will grow to become its most sworn enemies. This is the main theme of Kabir Khan’s New York, which I will briefly discuss in part two of this article.

Kabir Khan’s New York

Although not as successful at the box office as Karan Johar’s blockbuster, Kabir Khan’s New York is perhaps an even more interesting example of the transnational trend in the Bollywood terrorist genre. Released in 2008, New York focuses on the lives of three trendy young Indians studying at New York State University together. The usual Bollywood masala romance dominates the first half of the film, focusing on a sentimental love triangle between Maya (Katrina Kaif), Sameer or Sam (John Abrahams) and Omar (Neil Mukesh). Both Katrina Kaif and John Abrahams, as well as Irrfan Khan (playing the FBi agent Roshan) are well established stars in Bollywood (Irrfan Khan also starred as the policeman who interrogates the main protagonist in Slumdog Millionaire). And the presence of these stars, along with the solid musical score and the dramatic love triangle scenario, assured the film’s success despite its controversial theme. Significantly, Sam and Maya fall in love and shatter Omar’s emotional world at around the same time as the two hijacked passenger planes are driven into the Twin Towers. As with My Name is Khan, actual footage of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre is utilised in the film.

From this point onwards, a film which has been mostly centred upon a sentimental love conflict between three friends now becomes a political indictment of the Bush administration’s post-9/11 terrorist policies. Sam, as part of the FBI’s nationwide hunt for terror suspects, is arrested, incarcerated and tortured. These tortures are graphically depicted in the film and are apparently based on true life accounts of innocent victims, who have been illegally arrested and incarcerated for no other reason than their having the wrong ethnic background and religious persuasion. During the final credits a grim note to this effect informs the viewers of the facts that: “In the days following 9/11 more than 1200 men of foreign origin in the US were illegally abducted, detained and tortured for as long as 3 years. The government did not find evidence linking a single one of them to the 9/11 attack….”

The central protagonist Sam or Sameer functions as a prototype for these 1200 men. Indeed, from being a totally assimilated American before his torture and arrest, Sam now becomes a Moslem Jihadi, fusing his hatred for the United States with that of terrorist cells in Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Middle East. His old friend Omar is recruited by the FBI to spy on Sameer and his Hindu wife Maya and to crack open Sameer’s links to international terrorist cells. Omar is coerced into betraying his friends at the threat of disappearing into the FBI’s custody and being tortured for months on end as Sameer had been. In this way, even if the film does not actively promote Jihad as a fundamental tenet of Islam, it does portray a sympathetic psychological profile of the terrorist mind-set. Sameer’s friend Omar eventually understands this also when he is given Sam’s story and the barbaric nature of the ordeals he has had to endure and which have caused him to become an international terrorist.

Unlike Rizvan Khan, who has no qualms about informing the FBI about the fanatic Doctor Faisal’s terrorist plot in My Name is Khan, New York’s Omar is torn between his sympathies for his friend Sam/Sameer and the US system of liberty and justice, which he sees as being seriously undermined by George Bush’s invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan and his repressive domestic policies in the US, where under the Patriot Act fundamental individual rights and liberties of American citizens are apparently violated for no other reason than that they are of another ethnicity, culture and religious persuasion than the mainstream white majority. Omar, as the voice of reason and sensibility in New York, also represents the neutral observer, who is both within the system (he is educated at New York State University) and is outside it (he is an NRI national from Delhi living in the US). He has also been in love with Sam’s wife Maya but has tried to detach himself from these feelings, indeed from feeling anything at all. As such his decision to infiltrate his friend’s terrorist group and take part in its Jihad is significant. Omar is an “undecideable”; he is unsure of his identity, unsure of his ideals and his loyalties. Eventually, he betrays Sam and his group and communicates Sam’s plan to blow up the FBI headquarters to the FBI agent Roshan and the relevant authorities.

Despite promises from Roshan and the FBI executive heads, both Sameer and Maya are shot dead by FBI snipers during negotiations for Sameer’s surrender. According to Kabir Khan’s controversial film, this kind of FBI brutality and overkill is symptomatic of the new post-9/11 ultra-nationalist America which, in its unrelenting quest to punish the guilty, also leaves in its wake the bloodied corpses of the innocent: not just Maya, but arguably also Sam himself. This is a theme which has been taken up courageously and sometimes uncompromisingly by Hindi cinema.

Another powerful example of this uncompromising condemnation of post-9/11America occurs in Rensil D’Silva’s Kurbaan. Here, in an open discussion university forum, the main protagonist Riyaaz condemns US intervention in Afgahanistan and Iraq, claiming that the world’s biggest terrorists are the white super powers. Riyaaz informs the ethnic white students present about certain uncomfortable realities in US politics, such as the fact that the Taliban was a creation of the CIA and that more than 500,000 civilians were killed in Iraq. Much to the horror and consternation of the students present, Riyaaz concludes his speech by saying that “just because you wear a suit and call yourself President does not make you any less a terrorist.” This is pretty bold stuff and seems to be reflective of the growing dissatisfaction of certain Bollywood filmmakers towards a period in history where the West appeared to go totally wrong taking the downward path from humanitarian ideals of universal equality and democracy to policies of religious bigotry and totalitarianism.

Interestingly, although these themes have also been taken up by Hollywood, in films such as James Cameron’s Avatar, they have been depicted in a less direct way. In Avatar, for example, the” shock and awe campaign” unleashed upon the indigenous inhabitants of the planet Pandora (clearly a reference to Bush’s shock and awe campaign against Iraq), occurs in the context of an ingenious fantasy universe, where the brutality of corporate capitalism and US neo-imperialist policies is downplayed in that it not only happens in the safety of another continent, as with Iraq and Afghanistan, but occurs on another planet entirely!

The new Bollywood terrorist genre is therefore a more uncompromising and indeed disturbing contribution to the global debate than films like Avatar. This is due to the fact that West Asian directors depict terrorist activity from the contemporary political standpoint, along with exploring relevant issues connected with the stigmatised cultural and ethnic group, which has been largely denied a voice in this debate ever since the 9/11 event took place. As has traditionally been the case in Indian cinema, the new Bollywood terrorist genre gives the Moslem minorities a voice, telling their story from the inside, making them subject and not object and narrating the plot from the perspective of their culture, religion and community base. In My Name is Khan, for example, Rizvan’s sister in law Hasina is persuaded to remove her hijab (head scarf) after being attacked and having it forcibly removed by an unknown assailant. Eventually, she restores the hijab to her everyday dress, including her lecturing job at university. Here she says to her students: “M y hijab is not just my religious identity. It is a part of my existence. It is me.”

In Rensil D’Silva’s Kurbaan, the central protagonist Riyaaz is also instrumental in educating white university students about their preconceptions of Islam as a violent religion and the Koran as a scripture promoting Jihad. Riyaaz flatly informs the students that the word Jihad is in fact mentioned in the Koran only 41 times, but that the term mercy and compassion is mentioned 355 times. In this way, the film’s viewers are also informed that Islam is predominantly a religion of compassion and peace and not violence and bloodshed, as right wing vested interest groups have led us to believe in the past decade or so.

It is these perspicacious insights from within the socio-religious roots of West Asian culture which makes Indian cinema, often dismissed in the West as sentimental and trivial, such a profoundly didactic medium from which audiences, especially in the West, can increase their scant knowledge about the psychology behind Hindu and Moslem icons and spiritual practises. In an increasingly global world, where these icons and practises are continually crossing over and clashing with Western standards, this knowledge and awareness is not only relevant to us in the West, it is fundamental to our very existence.

Films like New York and My Name is Khan are an integral part of the teaching of that awareness.

Robert Rintoull

PhD Graduate

Copenhagen University

Sacred Love He Three Poisons In Relationship And How To Overcome Them

Posted on February 2, 2019 in Uncategorized

Three Poisons to Relationship

There are high emotions, and there are low ones. The high emotions breed happiness in self and others. The low ones cause much suffering. Of the low emotions, jealousy, anger, and desire are three of the worst.

Jealousy – A small sense of self
Anger – A perfume that invades every corner of a life
Desire – The break between love and contentment

The first Poison – Jealousy

Jealousy is the higher toxin in love. Tearing at the heart, it breaks down dignity into tiny needles of worry, anxiety, judgment and suffering. Jealousy originates in the smallness of our sense of self, and grows to embrace our history of betrayal. Our guilt about our own past anomalies surfaces in our jealousy.

Jealousy comes from comparison. Comparison of what we expect to get from others, to what we are getting. This mindset, originates in the self obsession of measuring life by what we get, rather than what we give. The fearful person holds back, and waits for their beloved to give them what they want. In the absence of the beloved, they feed themselves. It is from this mind, lonely and isolated that jealousy arises.

Jealousy cannot exist in nature, for each plant, insect and animal is true only to it’s own instinct, which, from time to time, appears emotional and cruel, but in fact is a pure instinct for survival. The fearful person, becomes the jealous lover, and the jealous lover is operating as an animal would, instinctually defending its own sense of survival. The jealous lover, measures their existence in small bites of acceptance, they have no sense of self other than the small territorial one that comes from ownership and property. Hence their vulnerability.

Spirituality conquers jealousy, albeit temporarily, by the crucifixion of the small self, and the resurrection of the large self. The self that emerges is bigger than gratification and small territorial conquest. The spiritual self does not exist. It is everything and therefore “no thing” – the universe has no known boundary, no law and division, and this is the spiritual self. Unbounded and immense, intangible, it cannot be sold, displayed, proven nor accounted. It is simply love, and in love, there is no emotion, how can there be, there is no wall to push against, the essential requirement for all emotion.

The second Poison – Anger

What a beautiful and gifted emotion is anger. It drives change from the core, and lifts many people beyond their means. It can elevate the poor, motivate the downtrodden and inspire genius of invention through necessity. Anger lives in the soul as gun powder sits behind every bullet. And we have our finger on the trigger.

The most peaceful soul deserves anger. To feel the exhilaration and determination of anger is the sport crowd united in protest, the community determined to object, the starving African willing to live another day, the woman abused and committed to extracting justice. Yet, this anger, judged and depreciated can create its own life, deep under the pretence of religion and spirituality.

Masked, anger is the devil. It’s power can sweep the human cells to cancer, the hair to fall, the bones to decay and muscles bind up in arthritic torments. Anger penetrates the brain, and tears at sanity, causing depression, Parkinson’s and hypertension, it rips into the glandular system, thyroid, endocrine and a host of other homes where nature, eventually reveals the heat of anger, as disease.

Cramping of mind, body and spirit occurs due to stored anger. Whether that anger is the subject of a current awareness or an ancient inheritance from childhood, it permeates every cell of a persons being. Those most prone to hidden anger, lurking unaware but damaging the life within are those who obsess with self happiness, personal calm, tranquility and isolation from relationship.

Spiritual integrity requires that we sit in stillness and, rather than drive ourselves to a predetermined state that fulfills a philosophical ideal of who we should or could be (this is the obligation of religion – self improvement – global improvement) spirituality drives to the core of honesty in witnessing, without judgment, who we really are, what we really feel and the defiance of our own self imprisoning expectations of ourselves.

It is like dancing in the rain. We take religion as an umbrella to keep us dry, and spirituality to experience the true awareness of wetness. One protects us from the flu, the other dives deep into it.

In the vast majority of relationships, anger keeps lovers apart. Hidden beneath veils of sarcasm, control, possessiveness, criticism and sadness. Repressed anger rides below the waters like a shark, waiting for bait. Remember, that anger cannot arrive because of someone. Anger exists within people, it is carried like a loaded gun, and the world provokes that which already exists, to come forward and express itself. Like love, anger comes from us, not to us.

Likewise, the anger and bitterness of others comes to us as if there were a mirror shining deep within us. Nobody can do to us more than we do to ourselves. Then, if we are angered upon, instead of blame, we can invoke a change of heart. Religion cannot solve the cause of anger, only defer and prevent it’s expression. Spirituality on the other hand cannot defer or prevent anger, simply it brings us awareness of what hides within. Integrity is knowing the truth of our emotions. Duty is what we do with them.

The third Poison – Desire

Imagine a monster with a huge mouth, comparable of gobbling up everything in sight. It has a huge appetite and a distended stomach, ready and waiting to be filled. The sad thing for this monster is that it’s throat is too small to pass all that it eats. Therefore, called the hungry ghost in Buddhism, this monster is always hungry, never satisfied.

Such is the life of the average westerner. Taught to set goals, achieve anything we want, we become hungry ghosts, consuming food, people, spirituality, pleasures, sexuality, success, victory, and lovers. We are taught to become the hungry ghosts to get more out of life, to possess those we love, to wrap our arms around life and make the most of it.

Love and desire cannot coexist. Desire is an ambition to be more happy, more wealthy, more loved, more thin, more beautiful, more successful, more victorious. Desire compares what we have to what we want, it leaves no moment for peace, only moments for planning the future. This fine art of the hungry ghost is the mark of “western Success” but is also the mark of “eastern failure” – discontent, is the cause of great suffering.

Can I be happy with what I have, if I desire other things? The answer is in the art of consumption, “yes, I can be happy with what I’ve got, but only until something causes me to realize what else I could have or achieve. More enlightenment, a better yoga pose, and more. All this in the belief that one day, when I have consumed all, I will no longer be hungry for happiness.

In a relationship, emotions such as desire are often prized. One individual may translate the passion and romance of desire into love. Yet, they are unaware of the calamity such emotions carry. A person who desires, does not only desire the object of their love, their desire other loves, other fruits, other things. One’s emotional tendencies are never limited to the lover we choose, but are our pallet of colors for life. We must consider that a loving person is also loving when they are alone. An angry person is still angry when they are alone. Flowers do not emit a fragrance just because you are there. They are flowers and have perfume anyway.

In nature, the true essence of something permeates it’s entire being. Whether you want to believe it or not, if your partner can cheat in the purchase of a cup of coffee, a million dollar business deal, or just telling a family fib, they can cheat on you. If they desire you, they can desire others. What one is, one is. To love a person, spiritually, is to acknowledge this. To love a person conditionally is to demand the separation of their goodness and their mischief. Really, that separation is impossible, we are who we are, totally.

There are Three high Emotions considered to be the mark of a good person. Kindness, Compassion and gentleness. The laws of nature will argue that there are two sides to everyone. The more kind, the more cruel. The more compassion the more self absorption, the more gentleness the more aggression. High and low, mixed in one soup. The real question is: are you honest enough to admit, privately at least, that you have both?

This is authenticity. Self confession. And what is more important is that those traits you own, you can channel, express in a healthy productive way. However, spend your life in denial, imprisoned by perceptions of being high without low, and those negative traits will be expressed on you by others. Just to teach you to love.

Live with Spirit


Pre-Crime Law and Surveillance – What is the Real Deal On That?

Posted on January 29, 2019 in Uncategorized

It is widely known that in the United States you cannot arrest someone without a probable cause, and you’re not even allowed to detain them. That’s the rules we have to protect freedom and liberty in our great nation. Of course, over the last decade, and in the age of international terrorism, some folks are trying to rethink some of these things in order to protect our citizens. That’s why we have The Department of Homeland Security or DHS.

There was an interesting article in Homeland Security Online News recently which was published on June 9, 2011 in the law enforcement technology category, the title of the article was “A Machine That Predicts Crime,” and the article stated;

“The very effort by individuals who are intent on committing a crime to mask their intent has detectable physiological manifestations; it should thus be possible to build a sensor which would identify these manifestations and correlate them with the underlying malintent.”

It is estimated by the intelligence industrial complex that such surveillance systems in airports could help profile problematic individuals, and potential terrorists. The name of this technology is called “Future Attribute Screening Technology” or FAST, and there is real science behind this. You see people who act nervous, or walk a certain way, or act a certain way will often tip off by their behavior and their future intent to do harm, steal, or commit a terrorist act.

Anyone who has ever “people watched” knows that there are subtle signs that people make when they are shady characters. Having an electronic surveillance system which picks up such minor clues to future behavior could save lives. Of course, unfortunately it sounds a lot like the “Pre-Crime Division” which was depicted in the famous Hollywood movie with Tom cruise; “Minority Report” -and therefore there are sure to be critics, even if this electronic profiling system works great.

Now then, if a terrorist is stopped at an airport for suspicious behavior, and detained, and then it is later found out that they had criminal intent, that case could be thrown out because they were stopped without probable cause. Theoretically, even if it was an electronic system that did the profiling, we still know that, this is beyond the rules of our criminal justice laws.

There will be some interesting case law that comes forth in the future as more and more these systems are integrated into airport terminals, train stations, bus stations, and in other places such as government buildings in the future. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on it, specifically the ramifications to criminal law.