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The Pentateuch, Law of Moses or Torah

Posted on March 19, 2019 in Uncategorized

Introduction

It is believed that the name Pentateuch “the first five books of the Old Testament, the book of the Law” (The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopaedia, 1964, p.1402) was first found in the letter of Elora of a second century Gnostic, Ptolemy and passed into Christian use. These books are called The Law (Torah) or the Law of Moses by the Jews. (Everyman’s Encyclopedia, 1978). It would be difficult to overestimate the role that the Pentateuch has played in the course of biblical scholarship. In all likelihood, these first five books in the Bible – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy- have been subjected to scrutiny more than any single block, with the sole possible exception of the Gospels (Knight and Tucker, 1985).

Origin

The word Pentateuch derives from the Greek pentateuchos “five-volumed (book)”, following the Jewish designation “the five-fifths of the law”. Jews call it the Torah, that is instruction, often rendered in English Law as it is called in the New Testament (Greek nomon; example, Matt. 5:17; Luke 16:17; Acts 7:53; 1 Cor. 9:8). According to Lasor, Hubbard and Bush (1982), the Pentateuch was “the most important division of the Jewish canon, with an authority and sanctity far exceeding that attributed to the prophets and writing” (p.54). They observe that the books of the Pentateuch are not ‘books’ in the modern sense of independent self-contained entries, but were purposefully structured and intended as part of a larger unity; therefore the term Pentateuch is not only convenient but necessary. However, granted this fact of the unity of the larger corpus, the conventional five-fold division is important not simply as a convenient means of reference to the material, but because there is clear editorial evidence establishing just these five books as genuine subdivisions of the material. Despite marks of real disparity and complexity in structure and origins, far more primary and important is the overarching unity which the Pentateuch evidences. A careful reading of the Pentateuch will reveal, beside a definite unity of purpose, plan and arrangement, a diversity – a complexity – that is equally striking.

Authorship

The traditional view according to Halley (1962) is that “Moses wrote the Pentateuch substantially…with the exception of the few verses at the close which give an account of his death, and occasional interpolations made by copyists for explanatory purposes” (p.56). This is in consonance with the view of Childs (1979). A modern critical view is that of a composite work of various scholars of priests made about the eighth century B.C., for partisan purposes, based on oral traditions, the principal redactors of which are called J (for Jahweh/Yahweh, the personal name of God), E (for Elohim, a generic name for God), D (for Deuteronomic) and P (for priestly). Each is claimed to be unique. However, “this view is not supported by conclusive research or evidence, and intensive archaeological and literary research has tended to undercut many of the arguments used to challenge Mosaic authorship” (The NIV Study Bible, 1984, p.2). Jews and Christians alike have held Moses to be the author/compiler of the Pentateuch.

Contents

The Pentateuch consists of the first five afore-mentioned books of the Bible. It must be observed that the first phrase in the Hebrew text of Genesis 1:1 is bereshith [in (the) beginning] which is also the Hebrew title of the book. The English title, Genesis, is Greek in origin and is derived from geneseos ‘birth’, ‘genealogy’ or ‘history of origin’. Genesis therefore appropriately describes its contents since it is primarily a book of beginnings. ‘Exodus’ is a Latin word from Greek exodos, meaning ‘exit’, ‘departure’. Leviticus receives its name from the Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) meaning ‘relating to the Levites’. It mainly concerns the service of worship at the tabernacle which was conducted by the priests who were the sons of Aaron, assisted by many from the rest of the tribe of Levi. Exodus gave the directions for building the tabernacle and Leviticus the laws and regulations for worship there including instructions on ceremonial cleanness, moral laws, holy days, the Sabbath year and the Year of the Jubilee. The English name of the book Numbers comes from the Septuagint and is based on the census lists found in it. The Hebrew title of the book (bedmidbar, ‘in the desert’), is more descriptive of its contents. It presents an account of the thirty-eight year period of Israel’s wandering in the desert following the establishment of the covenant of Sinai. The word ‘Deuteronomy’ (meaning the repetition of the law’), the name of the last book of the Pentateuch, arose from a mistranslation in the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate of a phrase in Deuteronomy 17:18, which in Hebrew means ‘copy of the law’. The error is not serious however since Deuteronomy is, in a certain sense, a repetition of the law.

Generally, the unity of the Pentateuch must be stressed when discussing the content. This is created by an interest in the historical narrative forming the Pentateuch’s backbone and framework and into which the blocks of legal texts have been placed. A clue to this narrative’s central role and importance is the fact that the Old Testament events most frequently cited in the New Testament as the background and preparation for God’s work in Christ are precisely that sequence of divine acts from Abraham’s call through the kingship of David. Summaries or ‘confession’ of this sequence of divine acts plays a central role in Scripture. The basic details confessing God’s saving acts on behalf of His people could be illustrated thus:

i. God chose Abraham his descendants (Acts 13:17; Josh.24:3) and promised them the land of Canaan (Deut. 6:23)

ii. Israel went down into Egypt (Acts 13:17; Josh. 24:5-7; Deut. 6:21ff; 28:8)

iii. God brought Israel into Canaan as promised (Acts 13:19; Josh.24:11-13; Deut. 6:23; 26:9).

This is but the narrative backbone of the Pentateuch in miniature. The plan that unifies the different elements forming the building blocks of the Pentateuch includes: promise, election, deliverance, covenant, law and land. It is realistically observed that “the one element universally present and central to these credos…is the Exodus, representing Yahweh’s deliverance and the historical realization of His election of Israel as His people” (Lasor, Hubbard, Bush, 1982, p.55).

The Pentateuch has two major divisions: Genesis 1-11 and Genesis 12- Deuteronomy 34. The relation between them is one question and answer, problem and solution; the clue is Genesis 12:3. This structure not only elucidates the binding unity of the Pentateuch but also reveals that the structure began stretches far beyond the Pentateuch itself. The end and fulfillment lie beyond Deuteronomy 34 – indeed beyond the Old Testament. It could be safely asserted that probably no where does the Old Testament set forth an ultimate solution to the universal problem which Genesis 1-11 so poignantly portrays. The Old Testament indeed does not arrive at full redemption. When the Old Testament ends, Israel is still looking for the final consummation when hope shall be fulfilled and promise become fact. The juncture of Genesis 10-11 and chapters 12ff., is not only one of the most important places in the whole Old Testament but one of the most important in the entire Bible. Here begins the redemptive history that awaits the proclamation of the good news of God’s new redemptive act in Jesus Christ; only then will be found the way in which the blessing of Abraham will bless all the families of the earth. The Pentateuch is truly open-ended, for the salvation history which commenced awaits the consummation in the Son of Abraham (Matt. 1:1) who draws all people to Him (John 12:32) punctuating the alienation of humanity from God and from one another.

Purpose

The purpose of the Pentateuch was a leading into the realization by God that He was the Creator and Sustainer of the universe as well as the Ruler of History. It testifies to God’s saving acts, the central act being the exodus from Egypt. God invaded the consciousness of the Israelites and revealed Himself as the redeeming God. Knowledge of God as Redeemer subsequently led to a knowledge of Him as Creator; understanding the Lord as the God of grace consequently prompted an understanding as the God of nature after He displayed control over nature as evidenced in the plagues, the crossing of the Red Sea and sustenance in the wilderness. It must be stressed that God’s grace was evident not only in deliverance and guidance, but in the giving of the law and the initiation of the covenant. Israel’s supposed pledge of obedience, oath of loyalty to God and His will is her response. One must hasten to note that this response is a gift of God’s grace. The Pentateuch stands or better still possesses a rich inner unity recording God’s revelation in history and His Lordship over history and testifying to Israel’s response and disobedience. It generally witnesses to God’s holiness which “separates Him from men, and His gracious love, which binds Him to them on His terms” (New Bible Dictionary, 1962, p.909).

Themes

Although several themes could be identified between Genesis and Deuteronomy, unique but inter-related, intertwined and invaluable ones could be identified. These include election, creation, fall/sin, covenant, law and exodus. Israel was God’s elect. According to Stott (1988), the Bible is “sacred history – the story of God’s dealing with a particular people for a particular purpose” (p.45). They were convinced that God had done this for no other nation (Ps. 147:20). Great thinkers of Greece (including Plato, Socrates and Aristotle) are not the focus but scriptural record concentrates on men like Abraham, Moses, David, Isaiah and the prophets to whom the word of the Lord came, and on Jesus Christ, God’s Word made flesh. Abraham’s call has a present day significance to us and should not be slightly regarded as an event of the past. Election – God’s special choice of individuals- basically contains two subsidiary features; promise and responsibility. Abraham is promised descendants, given the land of Canaan as his children’s inheritance and promised a great name in the future. God’s special favour was to rest not only on Abraham and his family but to all men through him (Gal. 3:29).

God’s promises to Abraham therefore were not for the selfish enjoyment of a selected few but could benefit others if used responsibly. It is incontrovertible that God’s choice of Israel has a missionary purpose. A covenant, in the Hebrew context, covered all human relationships and not a limited definition of a matter of legal documents and sealing-wax in the modern mind. This bond united people in mutual obligations. Naturally, people’s relationship to God should be expressed in covenant terms. Covenant terms could be used to describe three unique occasions in the Pentateuch:

i. God’s promises never again to destroy the world with a flood (Gen. 9:9)

ii. God’s promises to Abram (Gen. 15:18; 17:4)

iii. The Sinai Covenant established with Moses and summarized in the ‘book of the covenant’ (Ex.24:4).

It must be borne in mind that although covenants were generally between equals, religiously it denotes a relationship between Creator and a lesser partner. However, the theological significance of the covenant must be highlighted. Based on initiative of God and implying a new revelation of the Creator, it made moral and ritual demands upon the people.

Taylor (1973) realistically observes that “the idea of law is central to the Pentateuch and…it gives its name to the book as a whole” (p.124). It basically covers the Ten Commandments (Decalogue – Ex. 20; Deut.5) and associates with these various collections of laws classified as:

i. The book of the Covenant (Ex. 21-23)

ii. The Holiness Code (Lev. 17:26)

iii. The Law of Deuteronomy (Deut. 12:26)

Since Israel was part of the Eastern Mediterranean culture and shared in the ideas and experience of her neighbours, several similarities could be noted especially with the Code of Hammurabi. The differences however made Israel’s laws distinctive. They could be summarized thus:

i. Uncompromising monotheism (that is relating everything to the one true God)

ii. Remarkable concern for slaves, strangers, women and orphans (the underprivileged)

iii. Community spirit based on the covenant relationship shared by all Israel with the Lord

In a brilliant summary, Cornfeld (1961) observed that “Hebrew law appears from its earliest times to stand on a higher ethical level and postulates moral human relationship which do not seem to be equalled in other Near Eastern Legislations” (p.213). Israel must approach God with a due sense of His moral and spiritual distinctiveness. The elaborate sacrificial system generally found its fulfilment in the solitary sacrifice of Christ – the perfect Lamb of God- through whom sins are not only forgiven but atonement made for all men eternally (Heb. 10:1-18).

The exodus must be put in proper perspective. Described in Exodus 1-12, the Jews view it as the great intervention or saving act of God which later generations reminisced. This miraculous intervention was God’s act of victory of the gods displaying total supremacy. Recalled annually in the Feast of the Passover, subsequent generations were reminded that they were initially members of a slave community mercifully redeemed from bondage. They were encouraged to use this as a deterrent, especially when curses reward disobedience. The historical significance was definitive. God could repeat His initial act. In Isaiah 51:9-11, Israel looked for a second exodus while in exile in Babylon.

The afore-mentioned themes are never submerged in the Pentateuch. Probably, the only other theme (which recurs in depressing regularity) is Israel’s obstinate and persistent sinfulness. Among other things, they were slow to accept Moses as their deliverer, grumbled about hardship and desired to ‘go back to Egypt’. Not even Moses was immune and was punished by not being allowed to lead God’s people in the promised land.

Conclusion

Together, the five books trace Israel’s origin from the earliest times, through the patriarchs; then the Exodus and Sinai periods prior to the entry to Canaan; they also contain much legal instruction. God’s response to sin is consistently a blend of judgement and mercy. Beyond the immediate discipline of Adam and Eve, and confusion of tongues at Babel, God tempers justice with salvation. It is understandable therefore that in spite of man’s path, God called Abraham to be the channel of grace and revelation to all mankind.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Childs, B. (1979). Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia (1964). New York: Dell Publishing Co.

Cornfeld, G. (1961). Adam to Daniel. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Everyman’s Encyclopedia, Vol. 1. (1979). London : Dent and Sons.

Halley, H.H. (1962). Halley’s Pocket Bible Handbook: An Abbreviated Bible Commentary. Minnesota:
Zondervan Publishing.

Knight, D.A. and G.M. Tucker (1985). The Hebrew Bible and its Modern Interpreters. Minnesota:
Fortress Press.

Lasor, W.S., D.A. Hubbard and F.W. Bush (1982). Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form and
Background to the Old Testament. Michigan: Williams B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

The New Bible Dictionary (1962). London: The Inter-Varsity Fellowship.

NIV Study Bible (1984). Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.

Stott, J. (1988). Understanding the Bible. London: Scripture Union.

Taylor, J. (1973). The Five Books. In The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts: Lion Publishing.

The Renaissance, the All Seeing Eye and the Constitution of the United States of America

Posted on March 14, 2019 in Uncategorized

The All Seeing Eye of ancient Egypt, depicted upon the Great Seal of America, represents a fractal logic concept of political Liberty that is now re-emerging into a new global understanding. The ancient concept revealed its lost mystery when the science of quantum mechanics was extended into the evolutionary life-science of quantum biology. There is now an obvious advantage that various religious denominations and secular institutions, might gain, by sharing a moderate rigorous ethical understanding of the optic principles upholding spiritual reality, existing within a holographic universe.

The ancient Mystery Schools of Babylon and Egypt shared a common denominator with other ancient Eastern philosophies, which helped bring Western Classical Greek life-science into existence. This essay focusses upon the ancient civilisations of Egypt and Greece, but it is relevant to a multitude of global spiritual aspirations, based upon that common denominator. It is namely, an intuition to employ fractal logic reasoning in spiritual matters. That intuition is now re-emerging as a fundamental aspect of the new quantum biology science of life.

During the Egyptian 1st Kingdom, geometrical knowledge was needed to resurvey boundaries of rich fertile farms, lost during the the annual flooding of the Nile. Another, separate sacred geometry existed, one that extended its logic into the infinite world of fanciful immortal Egyptian gods. During the 2nd Kingdom, this ancient fractal geometrical logic became the basis for integrating concepts of mercy, compassion and justice into Egyptian political law. When the Greek philosopher Pythagoras, went to study political ethics at the Mystery Schools of ancient Egypt, he successfully devised an experiment in harmonics, known as the Comma of Pythagoras. This aspect of the Pythagorian Music of the Spheres discoveries, associated ‘Liberty’ with the political mathematics belonging to The Eye of Horus, the All Seeing Eye.

The only geometrical logic known to extend to infinity is now recognised by science to be fractal logic. Since the 5th Century until now, the Western religious World-view prohibited any life-science to be linked to such pagan logic. This was shown to be superstitious ignorance when optical nanotechnology revealed the Platonic fractal optics to be functioning within the human DNA. The NASA High Energy Astrophysics Division has published papers arguing that the Classical Greek Era’s science of life was based upon fractal logic. The fractal concept of political liberty is depicted on the American one dollar bill, and it refers to the Comma of Pythagoras experiment. However, at the time of the drafting of the Constitution of the United States of America, a grave scientific error occurred, resulting in an unbalanced scientific confusion.

One of the founding fathers of the Constitution, Alexander Hamilton, explained this problem. He did indeed, write that Liberty was associated with physics and geometrical principles. However, the Constitution was based upon Sir Isaac Newton’s published physics principles. Newton’s unpublished Heresy papers were not discovered until last century. Sir Isaac Newton’s conviction of the existence of a “more profound natural philosophy to balance the mechanical description of the universe…”was based upon Platonic physics and mathematical principles.

The Christian Church outlawed the balanced World-view political liberty concept during the 5th Century, some thirteen hundred years before the drafting of the American Constitution, Newton’s balancing fractal World-view, now at the cutting edge of quantum biological politician science, had been omitted, leaving a confused understanding of Pythagoras’ mathematical proof, which concerned itself with human liberty within a material universe balanced by the functioning of a spiritual or holographic reality. The relevant technologies are now known to be essential prerequisites for healthy biological growth and development through space-time

During the reign of Pope Cyril of Alexandria during the 5th Century, a Christian mob burnt several centuries of fractal logic research scrolls at the Great Library of Alexandria, raping and murdering it’s custodian, the mathematician Hypatia. St Augustine, at that time, officially recorded that her fractal logic mathematics was the work of the Devil. In his book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbon wrote that Hypatia’s death marked the beginning of Western Civilisations’ Dark Ages.

Western civilisation is only now beginning to emerge from the Dark Age corruption of Plato’s spiritual optical mathematics (revised for physics by the father of optics Ibn Al Haytham during the 11th Century). That lost logic is now an indisputable component of the new Platonic-Fullerene Chemistry of fractal quantum biological medical science, now emerging throughout Europe and America. Fullerene Chemisty, is based upon the holographic engineering principles of Plato’s spiritual optics as is noted by Harvard University’s Novartis Chair, Professor Amy Edmonson, in her online essay The Fuller Explanation.

The Christian Church hierarchy, long a sworn enemy of political democracy concepts being based upon spiritual fractal logic science, has not yet relinquished its role in the corruption of such physics logic. This attitude denies open debate in the affairs of global politics. in complete contempt of the 3rd Century BC Platonic Science of Universal Love, of which the Knights Templar and later Freemasonry (rightly or wrongly) linked to the teachings of Jesus Christ, as in the Jefferson Bible, held within the American Congressional Library.

Civilisation can be seen to be still in the Christian Dark Ages, This is collaborated by the fact that Cambridge University, since 1932 up until the present time, internationally requires the basis of fundamental student Core Curriculum studies, to be linked to the essay by the philosopher F M Cornford. entitled Before and After Socrates. This essay contains the ridiculous claim that Plato can be considered to be one of the greatest fathers of the Church, when his fractal logic spiritual mathematics was cursed by St Augustine as being the work of the Devil.

To add insult to injury, Western culture forbids the linking of life science to fractal logic because 20th Century science was governed by an inadequate understanding of the second law of thermodynamics, which demands the complete destruction of all life in the universe, forbidding any Platonic fractal-life science to exist. That law, still governing modern science, was derived from the Church’s 13th Century unethical (later witch burning) policies of St Thomas Aquinas. Reverend Thomas Malthus used Aquinas’ policies as the basis of the East India Company’s ruthless economic policies, which, during the 18th Century, were cited by Charles Darwin as being synonymous with the second law of thermodynamics, now enforcing a financial Hell on Earth.

During the 1980s the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia used ancient geometrical logic to prove the existence of new life-science physics laws associated with the Pythagorean Music of the Spheres. The proof mathematics were reprinted from Italy’s leading scientific journal, Il Nuovo Cimento, as an important discovery of the 20th Century by the world’s largest technological research institute, IEEE Milestone Series in Washington. Despite that published fact, most scientists refused to consider the claim that the work was based upon the forbidden fractal life-science logic.

However, in the eminent science book, The Beauty of Fractals-Images of Complex Dynamical Systems, by H Peitgen and P Richter, a chapter about extending quantum mechanics to quantum biology is entitled Freedom, Science, and Aesthetics, written by Professor Gert Eilenberger, the Director of a German scientific institute. Within his profound article he wrote about the bridging of “rational scientific insight” with “emotional aesthetic appeal” through optical fractal logic. This appears to echo the ancient geometrical fractal reasoning of Pythagoras, when he associated the All Seeing Eye optical mathematics with the concept of political freedom.

The Church surely, is now honour bound to cease its corruption of science practices. The earth does revolve around the sun and was never the centre of the universe. Spiritual reality now refers to ethical or God-like holographic reality and we can all pay homage to the devout Christian scientists who were later punished for trying to explain about the Platonic Science of Universal Love, once taught throughout Italy during the1st Century BC, as recorded by the historian Cicero.

Professor Robert Pope © 2011

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More Snow Makes Snowmobiling in Michigan More Popular and More Dangerous

Posted on March 9, 2019 in Uncategorized

Every winter thousands of snowmobile riders will hit the 6,200 miles of groomed, state trails to enjoy breathtaking views of Michigan from the seat of a snowmobile.

Snowmobiling has a huge economic impact on the state, annually generating more than a billion dollars generated both directly and indirectly from the more than 400,000 registered snowmobiles in Michigan. Those benefiting include hotels, restaurants, the tourist industry as a whole, and dealers and manufacturers. The average snowmobile sold for $8,800 in 2009, while the average snowmobiler spent over $4,000 on the sport. Those are funds put back into this state’s economy.

Nationwide there were 1.65 million registered snowmobiles in 2009 with snowmobiling having a $22 billion impact annually in the United States. More than 90,000 fulltime jobs are generated by the snowmobile industry in North America each year. In 2009, some 61,593 snowmobiles were sold in the U.S.

The Michigan Snowmobile Association (MSA) is encouraging its 20,000-plus members and all other snowmobilers to take the Zero Tolerance Pledge and promote alcohol-free Snowmobiling. It is against the law and carries the same stiff penalties as drinking and driving in an automobile.

During the 2009-10 winter season, there were 23 snowmobile accidents in Michigan causing 26 deaths according to the Law Division of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources & Environment. In 2008-2009 there were 24 snowmobile crashes causing 25 deaths.

My law firm joins the MSA to advance its cause of alcohol-free snowmobiling. We are encouraged that more and more snowmobilers are being responsible and not mixing alcohol with this great winter sport. And while using our wonderful state trails, we urge vigilance be given when approaching pedestrians, cross-country skiers, or groups of snowmobiles to avoid accidents.

A snowmobile can weigh up to 600 pounds and some performance sleds can travel at speeds in excess of 90 m.p.h. At 90 m.p.h., a snowmobile moves at 131 feet per second. With a standard reaction time of 1.5 seconds, a snowmobile will travel 195 feet before coming to a stop.

Children are at risk for snowmobile-related injury from being the operator, bystander, or passenger. Pediatric snowmobile-related injuries are often a result of risk-taking behavior of the parent (excessive speed, alcohol use, and nighttime driving). Males younger than 16 years are more than three times as likely as females of the same age to sustain a snowmobile-related injury.

If an accident does happen, I urge the victim to take note whether they are on a state trail, a public or private trail, as Michigan’s recreation statue provides for governmental immunity if you are injured on state land while snowmobiling. While on trails going through private land, snowmobiles should stay on the trail to avoid trespassing and to avoid hidden hazards like rocks or stumps under the snow.

I also want to remind snowmobile owners that if a snowmobile operator collides with a moving vehicle they are covered by Michigan No Fault Law. The operator may be eligible for No Fault benefits if they strike a vehicle parked on the side of the road in “a manner that presents an unreasonable risk of bodily injured. This is important because a snowmobiler colliding with a car parked on the side of the road because of a snowstorm often will be entitled to No Fault.

Statistics show that only 10-15 percent of snowmobile accidents occur on well-maintained and designed trails where as much as 80-90 percent of all snowmobiling takes place. Just a few of the risks along trails include: Cable and guide wires, fences, barbed wire, unsafe ice and ice ridges, hidden rocks, tree stumps, low hanging branches and other obstacles.

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that about 110 deaths and 13,400 hospital emergency room-treated injuries occur each year with snowmobiles. About 40% of the reported deaths resulted from colliding with trees, wires, bridges, and other vehicles. Some deaths occurred when the snowmobile rolled to the side in a ditch or stream and pinned the operator under the vehicle. Deaths also have occurred when the snowmobile was operating on ice and fell through.

In Michigan snowmobile safety training is recommend for all operators and required for persons ages 12 to 17. Speed and operator inattention are the cause of most accidents. In Michigan, an added danger is travelling over frozen waterways when the ice is too thin. For a safe and enjoyable season, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources offers these tips:

  1. Always keep your machine in top mechanical condition.
  2. Always wear insulated boots and protective clothing including a helmet, gloves and eye protection.
  3. Never ride alone.
  4. Avoid, when possible, crossing frozen bodies of water.
  5. Never operate in a single file when crossing frozen bodies of water.
  6. Always be alert to avoid fences and low strung wires.
  7. Never operate on a street or highway.
  8. Always look for depressions in the snow.
  9. Keep headlights and taillights on at all times.
  10. When approaching an intersection, come to a complete stop, raise off the seat and look for traffic.
  11. Always check the weather conditions before you depart.

Snowmobile riders injured by someone taking one unnecessary risks have a right to collect the damages. A lawyer knowledgeable about the dangers of snowmobile riding can help you determine whether you have suffered because of the negligence of another. If an avoidable accident has robbed you of your health, contact a lawyer as soon as possible. Only an experienced personal injury attorney can help you receive the justice that you deserve.

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